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Below are the details of four people who gave their place of birth as Paulstown in the 1851 and 1871 censuses of England. The first is a prisoner with only his initials given. The second is an army corporal and more than likely a member of the famous Flood family of Paulstown. The third is a young army private and the fourth is a house servant.

1871 – Lewes Gaol and House of Correction, Lewes, Sussex[1]

Name: J.B./ Convicted  Prisoner / Unmarried / Male / 48 / Agricultural Labourer / Born: Paulstown, Kilkenny, Ireland

1851 – District Military Barracks, Weedon Beck, Northamptonshire[2]

John Flood / Soldier / Unmarried / Male / 27 / Corporal Infantry? Army / Born: Paulstown, Kilkenny

1851 – Catham District Barracks, Gillingham, Catham, Kent[3]

Michael Longworth / Unmarried / Male / 18 / Army Private / Born: Paulstown, Kilkenny

1851- 16 East Street House, District 2H, All Saints Parish, Southampton, Hampshire[4]

Elizabeth Morney / Unmarried / Female / 20  / House Servant / Born: Paulstown, Ireland


[1] “1871 Census of England”, database, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 19 May 2011), entry for J.B. (age 48), Lewes, Sussex, citing GSU roll 827492,  Folio 122, p.6; Lewes registration district, Lewes subdistrict, ED Lewes Goal and House of Correction, household 1.

[2] “1851 Census of England”, database, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 19 May 2011), entry for John Flood (age 27), Weedon Beck, Northamptonshire, citing GSU roll 87696,  Folio 124, p.21; Daventry registration district, Weedon subdistrict, ED Military Barracks, household 1.

[3] “1851 Census of England”, database, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 19 May 2011), entry Michael Longworth (age 18), Catham, Kent, citing GSU roll 193511-193512,  Folio 446, p.45; Medway registration district, Gillingham subdistrict, ED Catham Barracks, household 1

[4] “1851 Census of England”, database, Ancestry.com (www.ancestry.com : accessed 19 May 2011), entry Elizabeth Morney (age 20), Southampton, Kent, citing GSU roll 193576-193577,  Folio 886, p.13; Southampton registration district, Southampton subdistrict, ED 2H, household 37

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One of the main ways that family and friends tried to find people who emigrated to the US or Australia was through ‘Information Wanted’ adverts in different newspapers. Word of mouth was the key with some reunited and others never to be found. Below is a selection of these adverts where Paulstown is mentioned. Some of the people placing adverts wrote that Paulstown was in county Carlow. Varying amounts of information are provided and all entries without a footnote are from the Boston Pilot newspaper.[1]

John Cooke – 1836                                                                                                                                                                                                               Of John Cooke, a native of Shanakil, county Kilkenny, Ireland. When last heard from he was in Boston, his father is now in New York, and is anxious to hear from him. Any information respecting him will be thankfully received, addresses to Lawrence Langton, No 232 Mulberry street, New York.[2]

Michael Dooley – 1850                                                                                                                                                                                                   From the townland of Paulstown, first location after arrival was Fall Springs, Massachusetts. John Dooley, his brother seeks information and can be reached at Michael Hughes, 47 Rensse (St?), Albany, NY. Date of advertisement 21 September 1850

Martin Stanton – 1851                                                                                                                                                                                                 From the towland of Paulstown, Co. Kilkenny, first location after arrival was ONT (Ontario?) in 1848. Last heard from in UCN in 1848. Information sought by Patrick Cane, a cousin, and can be reached at 85 So. 2nd St, New Bedford, MA. Date of advertisement 13 December 1851.

Garrett Healey – 1855                                                                                                                                                                                                 From the townland of Paulstown, Co. Carlow. Information sought by Pierce Healey, a brother. Can be reached at 2 Pleasant St. Court, Boston, MA. Date of advertisement 10 February 1855.

Catherine Doyle – 1856                                                                                                                                                                                                From the townland of Paulstown or Garryduff, intended destination was New York City, arrived at Halifax, Nova Scotia. Sailed on the Winchester, leaving Liverpool in January 1853. Margaret Doyle, her sister, seeks information and can be reached at Patrick O’Carroll, South Trenton, New Jersey. Date of advertisement 15 November 1856.

James Mahon – 1861                                                                                                                                                                                                    From the townland of Grange Lower near Paulstown, barony of Gowran, poor law of Kilkenny, county Kilkenny. Aged 24 and first location after arrival was Ohio. John Nowlan, a friend, seeks information and can be reached at S.Brookfield, MA. Date of advertisement 26 October 1861.


[1] “Information Wanted: A Database of Advertisements for Irish Immigrants Published in the Boston Pilot”, database, Bostoncollege.edu (http://infowanted.bc.edu: accessed 24 May 2011), entries for Paulstown location

[2] Murphy DeGrazia, Laura and Fitzpatrick Haberstroth, Diane. 2005. Voices of The Irish Immigrant: Information Wanted Ads in The Truth Teller New York City 1825-1844.New York: The New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, p.81.

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Included below is some genealogical information taken from two applications for U.S. passports where Paulstown is mentioned. The first is for John F. Martin whose father, Edward Martin, was born in Paulstown.[1] He applied on 9 May 1919. More documents were part of this application including an affidavit of identifying witness, a letter from the Knights of Columbus, an affidavit of birth and some letters from the War Department.

The second application came from Edward Vincent O’Rourke and was also made in 1919, on 3 October.[2] Edward’s father, William O’Rourke was born in Paulstown. This application also contained other documents. There was a letter from the Braden Copper company and an affidavit of birth where Anna O’Rourke is listed as Edward’s mother.

The italicized scrip shows where the applicant filled in information in his own handwriting. Text with a strikethrough was crossed out on the application.

John F. Martin

I John F. Martin a native and loyal citizen of the United States, hereby apply to the Dept. of State, at Washington, for a passport, accompanied by my wife.

I solemnly swear that I was born in De Pere in the state of Wisconsin, on or about the 15th day of March, 1868, that my father Edward Martin was born in Paulstown, Ireland and is now residing at dead, that he emigrated to the United States from the port of don’t know on or about 1848; that he resided 67 years uninterruptedly, in the United States from 1868 to 1915 at Utica NY for a few years and about 60 years at De Pere, Wn; that he was naturalized as a citizen of the United States before the Circuit Court at Brown County at Green Bay on Nov 4th 1856, as shown by the Certificate of Naturalization presented herewith; no certification on file only notation in record book

I am domiciled in the United States, my permanent residence being at Green Bay in the state of Wisconsin, where I follow the occupation of Lawyer; that I am about to go abroad temporarily; that I intend to return to the United States within 4 months with the purpose of residing and performing my duties of citizenship therein; and that I desire a passport for visiting the countries hereinafter names for the following purpose:

France                  Knights of Columbus War Relief Work

Great Britain      En Route

I intend to leave the United States from the port of New York, NY sailing aboard the unknown. My last passport was obtained from I never had a passport

 Description of Applicant

Age: 51 years / Stature: 5 feet 11 inches, Eng / Forehead: High / Eyes: Blue / Nose: Medium / Mouth: Ordinary / Chin: Ordinary / Hair: Brown / Complexion: Fair / Face: Ordinary / Distinguishing Marks: None

Edward Vincent O’Rourke

I Edward Vincent O’Rourke a native and loyal citizen of the United States, hereby apply to the Dept. of State, at Washington, for a passport.

I solemnly swear that I was born in Columbus in the state of Ohio, on or about the 5th day of September, 1895, that my father William O’Rourke was born in Paulstown, Co. Carlow, Ireland and is now residing at dead, that he emigrated to the United States from the port of Queenstown on or about 1882; that he resided 35 years uninterruptedly, in the United States from 1882 to 1917 at Columbus, Ohio; that he was naturalized as a citizen of the United States before the United States District Court at Ohio at Columbus on 1 – , as shown by the Certificate of Naturalization presented herewith

I am domiciled in the United States, my permanent residence being at Columbus in the state of Ohio, where I follow the occupation of Engineer; that I am about to go abroad temporarily; that I intend to return to the United States within 3 years with the purpose of residing and performing my duties of citizenship therein; and that I desire a passport for visiting the countries hereinafter names for the following purpose:

Chile So. America                             Mining Engineering

I intend to leave the United States from the port of New York sailing aboard the -.

Description of Applicant

Age: 24 years / Stature: 5 feet 9.5 inches, Eng / Forehead: Low / Eyes: Hazel / Nose: Large / Mouth: Medium / Chin: Round/ Hair: Dark Brown / Compexion: Dark / Face: Round / Distinguishing Marks: Mole on left jaw


[1] “U.S. Passport Applications 1795-1925”, database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 29 August 2011), entry for John Martin, 12 May 1919; citing National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Washington D.C.; Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 – March 31, 1925; ARC Identifier 583830 / MLR Number A1 534; NARA Series: M1490; Roll #768, application # 80591.

[2] “U.S. Passport Applications 1795-1925”, database, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 30 August 2011), entry for Edward O’Rourke, 7 October 1919; citing National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Washington D.C.; Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 – March 31, 1925; ARC Identifier 583830 / MLR Number A1 534; NARA Series: M1490; Roll #768, application # 125556.

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Paulstown is located where the road from Dublin diverges into two roads, one going to Waterford (the N9) and one going to Kilkenny (now called the R712, was the N10 before the opening of the M9 motorway). The original core of the village was formed at a crossroads that goes to Goresbridge, about 150 meters from where the road from Dublin diverges for Waterford. It is probably fair to say that buildings and then a village came about as a resting place, nodal point or trading post in the road network from centuries past.

Previous to having the name Paulstown (and it’s many various spellings), the area was known as Typerwoldric (again, various spellings are given). The name Typerwoldric probably comes from the Irish ‘Tobar Urlaic’ which translates as ‘the well of retching’ and was believed to be a cure for an upset stomach.[1][2] Paulstown gets its name from Paul Butler who was given a grant of the manor of lands of the area in 1325.

It has also been known as Whitehall for a period of time in the 19th and 20th centuries. At this point I have been unable to clearly identify when Whitehall began to be used and when, officially, it reverted back to the Paulstown name.

Circa 1220                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The earliest reference to the Paulstown area comes from a manuscript in the National Library of Ireland. It has the title “Grant by John de Claulla (Clahulle) to Richard Butelar of Typerwoldrich (now Paulstown, parish of Kilmacahil, Co. Kilkenny), (c. 1220?)”.[3]

1235                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Calendar of Ormonde Deeds outlines how a grant of land was given to Adam Walensis in 1235. One of the witnesses to this land grant is Milo de Typerwoldric.[4]

1305                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       A third reference to this name comes from the early 14th century in another National Library of Ireland manuscript, Quit-claim by Gilbert le Forester to John le Botiller of Typeroldryk (now Paulstown), c. 1305.[5]

1325                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Paul Butler received the manor and lands of Tyberwikick.[6]

1550                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The first reference to a name that resembles Paulstown comes in the year 1550 in The Irish Fiants of the Tudor Sovereigns: during the Reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Philip & Mary, and Elizabeth I. [7] Entry 497 mentions “ the rectory of Kylmakayle, which extends to the towns of Kylmakayle……Wylter, Polston, Ballysherdare…..”

 1571                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The next earliest mention of Paulstown in The Fiants comes in entry 1926.[8] It reads: “Pardon to Edmund Butler, of Pauliston, co. Kilkenny, gent. Fine £3. -28 December, xiv”.  Entry 1927 reads: “Pardon to Peter or Piers Butler of Pauliston, co. Kilkenny, gent. Fine £3. -28 December, xiv”. There are a number of further entries up to 1603 with these spellings.

1574                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Poliston is mentioned in the Calendar of Deeds 1547-1584[9]

1605                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Polestown is also in the Calendar of Deeds 1547-1584[10]

1624                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Pawlestowne is in the Inquisition XLIV of Walter Butler[11]

1650s                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 The 1641 depositions mentions Paulstowne

1837                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Whitehall is mentioned for the first time in Lewis’ Topographical Dictionary of Ireland [12]

1842                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In his 1884 publication Bassett outlines that the name of Paulstown was changed to Whitehall in the year 1842. However, this was written over 45 years after Whitehall’s first mention in Lewis’ Topographical Dictionary of Ireland.[13]


[1] Dunleavy, John J. 2007. A Short History of Paulstown. John J. Dunleavy, p.6

[2] Translations of words taken from http://www.focal.ie

[3] Sources Database. National Library of Ireland. (http://sources.nli.ie/Record/MS_UR_016712/Details#tabnav : accessed 20 June 2011), entries for Paulstown, citing manuscript D. 66

[4] Curtis, Edmund. 1932. Calendar of Ormond Deeds Volume 1. Dublin: Stationary Office, p.40

[5] Sources Database. National Library of Ireland. ( http://sources.nli.ie/Record/MS_UR_016589 accessed 20 June 2011), entries for Paulstown, citing manuscript D. 470

[6] Flood, Mary. 2007. Introduction Paulstown A brief Overview in: Paulstown Education and Historical Society (eds.) Paulstown Schools Past and Present. Kilkenny: Grange Silvia Publications. p.14 quoting National Library of Ireland MS 1095

[7] De Búrca, Éamonn, ed. 1994. The Irish Fiants of the Tudor Sovereigns: during the Reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Philip & Mary, and Elizabeth I. Dublin: Éamonn De Búrca for Edmund Burke. p.140

[8] Ibid. volume 2 p.

[9] Curtis, Edmund and Fitz-Patrick Berry, Henry. 1941. Calendar of Ormond Deeds 1547-1584. Dublin: Stationary Office

[10] Ibid.

[11] Healy, William. 1893. History and Antiquities of Kilkenny city and county… Volume 1. Kilkenny: P.M. Egan. 1893. p.450

[12] Lewis, Samuel. 1837.  A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland. London: S.Lewis. p.715

[13] Bassett, George Henry. 1884. Kilkenny City and County Guide and Directory. Dublin: Sealy, Byers and Co. 1884. p.317.

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Cardinal Paul Cullen is one of the giants of Irish Catholic Church history. He was the first Irishman to be made a Cardinal and created the concept of papal infallibility. Cardinal Cullen was born in Prospect, Kildare most likely on 29 April 1803[1] and has a link to Paulstown through one of his grandparents.

Cardinal Cullen’s mother was a woman by the name of Mary Maher.[2] While the Maher name has been evident in records concerning Paulstown for hundreds of years this is not where the link is. Mary Maher’s parents were Patrick Maher and Catherine Moore.[3] Catherine Moore, Cardinal Cullen’s maternal grandmother, was born in Paulstown.[4]

She has been described as “full of the ardour of true piety, and of that devotional zeal for which the faithful of Kilkenny have been at all times so remarkable”.[5] As well as this it seems that Catherine Moore Maher was not easily scared or intimidated.

A story is told by Patrick Francis Moran, bishop of Ossory in the 1870s, where her son-in-law, Hugh Cullen (father of Cardinal Cullen) was made a prisoner and charged with aiding the 1798 rebels. Cullen was being transported and was denied the opportunity to have food or water. Catherine Moore Maher, ignoring the armed guards escorting Cullen, got up on the chaise he was being transported in, handed him a bottle of wine and said “cheer up my son, God will soon send you back victorious to us”.[6]

It is always worth noting that Moore’s birth information is taken from a secondary historical source which, unfortunately, does not reference any Church or civil record. As any good genealogist knows, primary sources are always preferable.


[1] Three different dates of birth are given in various publications. See p.208 of O’Carroll’s 2008 publication Paul Cardinal Cullen for more details.

[2] MacSuibhne, Peadar. 1955. The Early Cullen Family in Reportorium Novum: Dublin Diocesan Historical Record. Vol 1. No. 2 p. 192.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Moran, Patrick Francis. 1877. The Letters of Rev. James Maher, D.D., Dublin: Browne and Nolan p.iii

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid. p.iii-iv

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Known as the “Old Man Registration”, these records come from the draft registration of older men that were collected for World War II.[1] All the men registered were born between 28 April 1877 and 16 February 1897 and were not already in the military. It was the fourth draft registration and was conducted on 27 April 1942. Two men, one from New Jersey and one from Massachusetts gave their place of birth as Paulstown. Records for eight states were destroyed and are incomplete for other states.

Thomas Carroll / Age:56 /   Born: Paulstown, Ireland / Residence: 307 Heights Road, Ridgewood, NJ / Date of Birth: 15 August  1885 / Emergency Contact: Amos P. Foy, 307 Heights Road, Ridgewood, NJ                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Bernard Patrick  Cavanaugh  / Age:55 / Born: Paulstown, Ireland / Residence: High St, Woodshole,  MA / Date of Birth: 17 March 1888 / Emergency Contact: Catherine Cavanaugh, same address / Employer: M. A. Walsh Estate, Woodshole, MA.


[1] Ancestry.com. Selective Service Registration Cards, World War II: Fourth Registration. Database. Ancestry.com http://www.ancestry.com: 2010

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An interesting article that looked at the number of children born to unmarried mothers in various parishes in 18th and 19th century Ireland appeared in a 1979 edition of Irish Economic and Social History.[1] One of the parishes selected for the study was Paulstown and Goresbridge. While the overall numbers of ‘illegitimate’ births, as they were called, was very small, there was a gradual increase from 1.1% in the 1821-1830 period to 2.4% in the 1841-1850 period. Possible reasons for this increase could include an actual increase in births to unmarried mothers or decreasing social stigma when it came to recording births as outside of marriage. It also must be remembered that there could be a correlation between the higher rate of births outside of marriage and the occurrence of The Famine in the 1841-1850 period.

Years: 1821-1830 / Births: 896 / Illegitimate: 10 / Percentage: 1.1

Years: 1831-1840 / Births: 2,023 / Illegitimate: 43 / Percentage: 2.1

Years: 1841-1850 / Births: 966 / Illegitimate: 23 / Percentage: 2.4


[1][1] Connolly, S.J. 1979. Illegitimacy and Pre-Nuptial Pregnancy in Ireland Before 1864: The Evidence of Some Catholic Parish Registers in Irish Economic and Social History, Vol 6, pp.9-24

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During the American Civil War a group emerged in England that was sympathetic to the cause of the Southern Confederacy States. The Southern Independence Association was founded on 9 April 1864[1] and even went as far as trying to get a bill through the British Parliament that called for the British Government to intervene on behalf of the Confederacy.[2] A list of members was printed in the Manchester Guardian newspaper and reprinted in The New York Times in May 1864. Among the names are a number of the Irish based aristocracy, including a member of one of the main landed gentry families of Paulstown. The entry reads:

William Flood, Esq., J.P., Paulstown Castle, Gowran, Kilkenny, Ireland


[1] Author Unknown, Our English Friends in The New York Times, 7 May 1864, p.8 ProQuest Historical Newspapers http://www.proquest.com accessed 18 July 2011

[2] Bateman, Tom. Really Neutral on BBC Radio 4 Website, 2 October 2010; available online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/today/newsid_9054000/9054041.stm : accessed 18 July 2010.

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When the Famine struck in Ireland relief committees were set up all over the country to try and help the destitute, hungry and dying. The names in the document below come from subscribers to the Paulstown Relief Fund, County of Kilkenny compiled by Samuel Jefferies of Gowran.[1] Names such as Flood, Brenan, Maher, Healy, Byrne, Drennan, Harding, Wynn and Brophy are all listed.

At the end of the list of subscribers is a short note from the fund treasurer James Maher. It reads:

I acknowledge to have received from the forgoing subscribers to the Paulstown Relief Fund the several suries(?) attached to their names making a total of £171 received by me up to this date.

James Maher

Treasurer

13 June 1846

Irish Famine Relief Commission Papers 1844-1847


[1] Ancestry.com Ireland Famine Relief Papers 1844-1847 from The National Archives of Ireland Incoming Letters Numerical Series RLFC3/1/ 2010 accessed 19 May 2011

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Many parts of Ireland can lay claim to people who fought in World War I and World War II. Paulstown is no different. William Neary, born in Kilkenny City[1] in 1906[2], and who lived in Paulstown from a young age[3] until his emigration at the age of 22[4], fought in World War II with the U.S. Army.

Neary fought with the U.S. Army in the Pacific arena. Indeed he was captured by the Japanese and served as a Prisoner of War (PoW). Few U.S. soldiers managed to ever escape from the Japanese PoW  camps, but along with two Mayo men, Neary did just that.[5] Having escaped he stayed in Asia and served with the army throughout the rest of the Pacific campaign.

Neary came to the U.S. in 1929, departing from Cobh on 24 March. He sailed on the Baltic and arriving in New York on 2 April.[6] His passenger list states that he was going to the U.S. permanently, like countless other Irish people. His ultimate destination was to a cousin, Patrick Walsh, who lived in New Haven, Connecticut.[7] Whether he was actually meaning to go to New Haven is unknown but in the next year he turns up living and working at a United States Marine Hospital in Manhattan, New York City.[8]

Neary’s parents were William Neary Sr. and Mary Cody (Coady on some documents).[9] William Jr. had at least four brothers and sisters: Catherine, John, James and Margaret.[10] Neary and Cody were married in mid 1898[11] with William Sr. having also been born in Kilkenny City[12], most likely in 1873[13]. Mary Cody and her father were also born in Kilkenny City.[14]

In the first decade of the 20th century William Neary Sr. and his young family lived with his father-in-law James Cody. In 1901 the family resided on Kennyswell Street on the eastern outskirts of Kilkenny City, in the civil parish of St. Canice.[15] Their accommodation was modest, a house with a few rooms and a thatched roof.[16] James Cody was a widowed cattle dealer with his son in law, William Sr., working as a labourer, possibly in the cattle business with James.[17]

By 1911 the Neary family and James Cody had moved to Paulstown, living in the townland of Kilmacahill. William Jr. was 5 years of age at this time. William Neary Sr. is listed as the landholder and they seem to be living in slightly better accommodation as their house has a slated roof. [18]By this stage there is no mention of James or William Sr. working in the cattle business as both are listed as labourers.[19]

Cody/Coady is a name that has a long association with the Paulstown area. It turns up in every major set of Irish genealogical records going back to the Tithe Defaulters Lists of the 1830s. This could be a reason as to why the Neary family and James Cody came to Paulstown, perhaps he had family in the area and land became available to rent.


[1] The National Archives of Ireland, 1901 Census of Ireland, County Kilkenny, DED Kilkenny Urban, Townland/Street Kennyswell Street, Form A, Number on Form B 1 (stamped),house 30, William Neary; digitial image, The National Archives of Ireland, http://census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000926560/  : accessed 12 May 2011; original manuscript not cited.

[2] Ireland Civil Registration Indexes 1845-1958, database, FamilySearch.org (https://www.familysearch.org/search/recordDetails/show?uri=https://api.familysearch.org/records/pal:/MM9.1.r/MNMW-YD4/p1 : accessed 12 May 2011), entry for William Neary

[3] The National Archives of Ireland, 1911 Census of Ireland, County Kilkenny, DED Paulstown, Townland/Street Kilmacahill, Form A, Number on Form B 1 (stamped),house 7, William Neary; digitial image, The National Archives of Ireland, http://census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai002638171/ : accessed 12 May 2011; original manuscript not cited.

[4] “New York Passenger Lists 1820-1957”, database, Ancestry.com (http://ancestry.com: accessed 12 May 2011), entry for William Neary, age 22, arrived New York, New York, 2 April 1929 aboard the Baltic

[5] Doherty, Richard. 2002. Irish Volunteers in the Second World War. Dublin: Four Courts Press. p.340. Story told to author in interview with Ed Brett of New Jersey, USA.

[6] “New York Passenger Lists 1820-1957”, Ancestry.com, entry for William Neary; accessed 12 May 2011

[7] “New York Passenger Lists 1820-1957”, Ancestry.com, entry for William Neary: accessed 12 May 2011

[8] Ancestry.com, 1930 US Census, New York County, New York, population schedule, City of New York Borough of Manhattan, 34th Election District, 1st Assembly District, Sheet x, No House number, No family number, William Neary; digital image, Ancestry.com http://www.ancestry.com: accessed 12 May 2011; citing NARA microfilm publication T626, roll 1545

[9] The National Archives of Ireland, 1911 Census of Ireland, William Neary: accessed 12 May 2011

[10] The National Archives of Ireland, 1911 Census of Ireland, William Neary: accessed 12 May 2011

[11] Ireland Civil Registration Indexes 1845-1958, database, FamilySearch.org (https://www.familysearch.org/search/recordDetails/show?uri=https://api.familysearch.org/records/pal:/MM9.1.r/MF2Z-ZFD/p1  : accessed 12 May 2011), entry for William Neary. The corresponding entry for Mary Cody has matching registration district, year, quarter, page and volume numbers. Their 1911 census form says they have been married for 13 years.

[12] The National Archives of Ireland, 1901 Census of Ireland, William Neary: accessed 12 May 2011

[13] The National Archives of Ireland, 1911 Census of Ireland, William Neary: accessed 12 May 2011

[13] Ireland Civil Registration Indexes 1845-1958, database, FamilySearch.org (https://www.familysearch.org/search/recordDetails/show?uri=https://api.familysearch.org/records/pal:/MM9.1.r/MFR7-MGG/p1   : accessed 12 May 2011), entry for William Neary

[14] The National Archives of Ireland, 1901 Census of Ireland, William Neary: accessed 12 May 2011

[15] The National Archives of Ireland, 1901 Census of Ireland, William Neary: accessed 12 May 2011

[16] The National Archives of Ireland, 1901 Census of Ireland, County Kilkenny, DED Kilkenny Urban, Townland/Street Kennyswell Street, Form B1, No Number, house 30, Dwelling of James Cody; digitial image, The National Archives of Ireland, http://census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000926529/ : accessed 13 May 2011; original manuscript not cited.

[17] The National Archives of Ireland, 1901 Census of Ireland, William Neary: accessed 12 May 2011

[18] The National Archives of Ireland, 1911 Census of Ireland, County Kilkenny, DED Kilkenny Urban, Townland/Street Kennyswell Street, Form B1, No Number, house 7, Dwelling of James Cody; digitial image, The National Archives of Ireland, http://census.nationalarchives.ie/reels/nai000926529/ : accessed 13 May 2011; original manuscript not cited.

[19] The National Archives of Ireland, 1911 Census of Ireland, William Neary: accessed 12 May 2011

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